Responsabilidade Civil Contratual e Extracontratual

A responsabilidade civil pode ser contratual ou extracontratual, a depender do tipo de dever jurídico violado.

Quando a obrigação descumprida está presente num contrato – obrigação contratual – diz-se que a responsabilidade civil é contratual. Existe, pois, uma convenção prévia entre as partes, que não é cumprida.

Essa modalidade de responsabilidade civil está presente no art. 389 do Código Civil, pelo qual “não cumprida a obrigação, responde o devedor por perdas e danos, mais juros e atualização monetária segundo índices oficiais regularmente estabelecidos, e honorários de advogado”.

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Por exemplo, quando uma pessoa estaciona seu carro num estacionamento privativo de um shopping está tecnicamente celebrando com a empresa um contrato de depósito, no qual o empresário-depositário tem o dever de conservar e guardar a coisa, bem como devolvê-la no estado em que a recebeu. Se algo ocorrer com o veículo durante o tempo em que ele está estacionado, o depositário será responsável, responsabilidade essa de natureza contratual, por violação de um dever decorrente do contrato de depósito.

Ainda no tocante à responsabilidade civil contratual, importante mencionar que “nas obrigações negativas o devedor é havido por inadimplente desde o dia em que executou o ato de que se devia abster” (art. 390).

Ademais, “nos contratos benéficos, responde por simples culpa o contratante, a quem o contrato aproveite, e por dolo aquele a quem não favoreça. Nos contratos onerosos, responde cada uma das partes por culpa, salvo as exceções previstas em lei” (art. 392). Este é uma das poucas situações em que o legislador civil diferencia dolo e culpa na responsabilidade civil.

A culpa, em regra, é necessária para haver responsabilização. Trata-se de um dos requisitos para configuração da responsabilidade civil subjetiva, que é a regra do direito brasileiro, como se verá nos tópicos seguintes.

“o devedor não responde pelos prejuízos resultantes de caso fortuito ou força maior, se expressamente não se houver por eles responsabilizado” (art. 393).

A doutrina e jurisprudência de se digladiam para definir um conceito de caso fortuito e força maior. Particularmente, preferimos a ideia lançada pelo professor Pablo Stolze que evita conceituar em si tais institutos, estabelecendo entre eles uma marca de distinção.

Para ele, o caso fortuito se caracteriza por ser imprevisível; e a força maior se mostra como inevitável.

De toda forma, tal diferenciação na prática não tem efeito algum, porquanto o legislador não traz diferenciação nem efeitos distintos na sua configuração. Para o Código Civil, “o caso fortuito ou de força maior verifica-se no fato necessário, cujos efeitos não era possível evitar ou impedir” (art. 393, parágrafo único). Ou seja, não há diferença; a consequência jurídica para ambos é a mesma.

Por fim, como vimos, a regra é que a responsabilidade é subjetiva, ou seja, depende da demonstração de culpa da parte inadimplente para haver a responsabilização. Mas, poderá haver hipóteses de responsabilidade civil objetiva. Isso vai decorrer da lei ou de cláusula específica no contrato que traz a responsabilização do contratante em qualquer situação. Ou seja, cláusula que transforma a obrigação em responsabilidade objetiva.

De outro lado, quando a responsabilidade não deriva de um contrato, diz-se que ela é extracontratual. Aqui, o agente viola um dever legal imposto genericamente a todos da sociedade pela lei. Logo, não há vínculo jurídico algum decorrente de contrato entre a vítima e o causador do dano, quando este pratica o ato ilícito.

A responsabilidade civil extracontratual também é conhecida como aquiliana e está prevista nos arts. 186 e 187 do Código Civil:

Art. 186. Aquele que, por ação ou omissão voluntária, negligência ou imprudência, violar direito e causar dano a outrem, ainda que exclusivamente moral, comete ato ilícito.

Art. 187. Também comete ato ilícito o titular de um direito que, ao exercê-lo, excede manifestamente os limites impostos pelo seu fim econômico ou social, pela boa-fé ou pelos bons costumes.

Isso ocorre, por exemplo, na hipótese em que o condutor descumpre uma norma de trânsito e com isso provoca acidente que gera prejuízo à vítima. Veja-se que inexiste um vínculo preexistente entre autor do dano e a pessoa lesionada decorrente de um contrato. Porém, descumpriu-se um dever que estava imposto na lei e de cumprimento obrigatório por todos os condutores de veículo.

Importante destacar que a responsabilidade civil não se origina apenas da violação de uma obrigação contratual ou de uma regra insculpida na lei. Em tempos modernos, há que se lembrar também que uma conduta violadora de princípios pode ensejar a responsabilização civil, desde que presente seus pressupostos.

Nesse tocante, a atividade hermenêutica torna-se de sua importância, tanto para a sua incidência, quanto para o cuidado em evitar interpretações excessivamente personalistas e de pouca valoração objetiva.

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